Steps To Setup:

Part 1 – Disk Setup

Fdisk is the most commonly used command to check the partitions on a disk. The fdisk command can display the partitions and details like file system type. However it does not report the size of each partitions.

$ sudo fdisk -l

You cannot create a Linux partition larger than 2 TB using the fdisk command. The fdisk won’t create partitions larger than 2 TB. This is fine for desktop and laptop users, but on server you need a large partition. For example, you cannot create 3TB or 4TB partition size (RAID based) using the fdisk command. It will not allow you to create a partition that is greater than 2TB.

Creating 4 TB Partition Size

To create a partition start GNU parted as follows:

$ parted /dev/sdb

Creates a new Partition Table:

$ (parted) mklabel gpt

Next, set the default unit to TB, enter:

$ (parted) unit TB

To create a 4 TB partition size, enter:

$ (parted) mkpart primary 0.00TB 4.00TB

To print the current partitions, enter:

$ (parted) print

Quit and save the changes, enter:

$ (parted) quit
Use the mkfs.ext4 command to format the file system: (Optionally You can use mkfs.ext3 if needed)

$ mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdb1
Create the PV through following command:

$ pvcreate /dev/sdb1

You can check that new PV through this command:

$ pvscan

Create the Volume Group:

$ vgcreate -s 32M vg1 /dev/sdb1

You can check that new volume group through this command:

$ vgdisplay
Part 2 – Network Setup

Bridging requires the bridge-utils package to be installed on the server. To check if it’s installed, do the following:

$ rpm -q bridge-utils

If you get an output – it’s installed, if not, it needs installing:

$ yum install bridge-utils

Before setting up your bridge, the contents of /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 will look like the following:


To back up your current ifcfg-eth0 before modification:

1. Run the following command:

$ cp /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/backup-ifcfg-eth0

2.Create the bridge file:

$ nano -w /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-br0

3. Copy parts of ifcfg-eth0 to it:


4. Save that file and edit ifcfg-eth0:

$ nano -w /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0

5. Remove the networking parts and specify the bridge:


6. Bridge is  set up. Make sure that the changes are correct and restart the networking:

$ /etc/init.d/network restart

7. Once it’s restarted you see the new bridge using the ifconfig command:

[root@bharat ~]# ifconfig
br0       Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:27:0E:09:0C:B2
inet addr:  Bcast:  Mask:
inet6 addr: fe80::227:eff:fe09:cb2/64 Scope:Link
RX packets:48 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:67 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:2984 (2.9 KiB)  TX bytes:13154 (12.8 KiB)

eth0      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:27:0E:09:0C:B2
inet6 addr: fe80::227:eff:fe09:cb2/64 Scope:Link
RX packets:31613 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:9564 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:100
RX bytes:2981335 (2.8 MiB)  TX bytes:2880868 (2.7 MiB)


Part 3 – Installing a SolusVM KVM Slave:

In SSH as root do the following:

$ wget

$ chmod 755 install

$ ./install

Now, follow the steps as shown in Video.

The install will now do it’s work.You will get next output (output text may vary)

Once the installer is complete you will be presented with the slave keys and any further instructions for your install type.

To set up Microsoft Office 365, login to cPanel, then add/update the following DNS records for the domain(s) in question:   300   MX    0   3600  TXT   MS=ms000000
autodiscover        3600  CNAME   3600  TXT   "v=spf1 ~all"
_sip                3600  SRV   100 1 443
_sipfederationtls   3600  SRV   100 1 5061
sip                 3600  CNAME
lyncdiscover        3600  CNAME


  • The MS record shown in red is a number supplied by Microsoft as part of the verification rocess.
  • The MX record contains the domain name as a prefix, with periods replaced by hyphens.
Then, change the Email Routing setting down the bottom to “Remote Mail Exchanger”.

There are plenty of reasons you would need to add secondary IP addresss (and everyone agrees that SEO is not one of them). Getting a secondary IP address is a simple process if it is done for the right reasons and done correctly. You do NOT need additional NIC cards but you will be creating virtual adapters as the secondary IP will be routing through the primary IP.

Also, this is a great thing to do at home as I’ve done it to run multiple internal IP addresses on one server to run multiple applications across the same ports (for KISS** sake). Please note that I am doing this is in a virtual testing environment so your settings will definitely be different.

** KISS = Keep It Stupid Simple **

You will need to be the root user and navigate to your /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts

 # cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts

When getting a list of files in the directory you will see “ifcfg-eth0” (or eth1 if you’re doing it for a different adapter)

 # ls -l | grep ifcfg-eth
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   119 Jan 11 19:16 ifcfg-eth0
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   119 Jan  3 08:45 ifcfg-eth0.bak
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   119 Feb 24 04:34 ifcfg-eth1
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   128 Jan 19 18:20 ifcfg-eth1.bak

Now adding the virtual adapters is easy. Basically if the main adapter is called “eth0” you have to call the next (virtual) adapter in a sequential order like so:

  • ifcfg-eth0 (primary adapter, physical)
  • ifcfg-eth0:1 (first virtual adapter to the physical primary adapter)
  • ifcfg-eth0:2 (second virtual adapter to the physical primary adapter)
  • and so on…

That being said, lets go ahead and copy our primary adapter configuration file and name it to be the first virtual adapter for the physical primary:

 # cp ifcfg-eth0 ifcfg-eth0:1
# ls -l | grep ifcfg-eth
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   119 Jan 11 19:16 ifcfg-eth0
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   119 Feb 24 08:53 ifcfg-eth0:1
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   119 Jan  3 08:45 ifcfg-eth0.bak
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   119 Feb 24 04:34 ifcfg-eth1
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   128 Jan 19 18:20 ifcfg-eth1.bak

Now, we have to configure this virtual adapter to be: a static IP (of course), no hardware address (MAC), configure netmask and of course rename the device.

 # vim ifcfg-eth0:1

There is no need to specify a MAC address as it is a virtual adapter and there is also no need to specify a default gateway as it is already routed through the primary adapter. Basically there are only four things that you will need to change:

  • File name for the adapter itself
  • DEVICE=<device name> (should correspond with the file name)
  • IPADDR=<ip address>
  • NETMASK=<netmask>

Afterwards, just restart the networking service:

 # service network restart

That’s it; lets check ifconfig to make sure the virtual adapter is there and working:

 # ifconfig eth0:1
eth0:1    Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 08:00:27:ED:05:B7
inet addr:  Bcast:  Mask:

# ping
PING ( 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.073 ms
64 bytes from icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.042 ms
64 bytes from icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.029 ms
64 bytes from icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=0.029 ms
--- ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 2999ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.029/0.043/0.073/0.018 ms

Per Steven’s comment: a second note. If you’re not sure if you’ve done it right and you do not want to restart the entire network server, you can use the following:

 # ifup eth0:1

The virtual network (virbr0) used for Network address translation (NAT) which allows guests to access to network services. However, NAT slows down things and only recommended for desktop installations. To disable Network address translation (NAT) forwarding type the following commands:

Display Current Setup

Type the following command:
# ifconfig
Sample outputs:

virbr0    Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:00:00:00:00:00
          inet addr:  Bcast:  Mask:
          inet6 addr: fe80::200:ff:fe00:0/64 Scope:Link
          RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:39 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
          RX bytes:0 (0.0 b)  TX bytes:7921 (7.7 KiB)

Or use the following command:
# virsh net-list
Sample outputs:

Name                 State      Autostart
default              active     yes

To disable virbr0, enter:
# virsh net-destroy default
# virsh net-undefine default
# service libvirtd restart
# ifconfig 

Mondo Rescue is an open source, free disaster recovery and backup utility that allows you to easily create complete system (Linux or Windows) Clone/Backup ISO Images to CD, DVD, Tape, USB devices, Hard Disk, and NFS. And can be used to quickly restore or redeploy working image into other systems, in the event of data loss, you will be able to restore as much as entire system data from backup media.

Mondo program is available freely for download and released under GPL (GNU Public License) and has been tested on a large number of Linux distributions.

This article describes Mondo installation and usage of Mondo Tools to backup of your entire systems. The Mondo Rescue is a Disaster Recovery and Backup Solutions for System Administrators to take full backup of their Linux and Windows file system partitions into CD/DVD, Tape, NFS and restore them with the help of Mondo Restore media feature that uses at boot-time.

Installing MondoRescue on RHEL / CentOS / Scientific Linux

The latest Mondo Rescue packages (current version of Mondo is 3.0.3-1) can be obtained from the “MondoRescue Repository“. Use “wget” command to download and add repository under your system. The Mondo repository will install suitable binary software packages such as afio, buffer, mindi, mindi-busybox, mondo and mondo-doc for your distribution, if they are available.

For RHEL/CentOS/SL 6,5,4 – 32-Bit

Download the MondoRescue repository under “/etc/yum.repos.d/” as file name “mondorescue.repo“. Please download correct repository for your Linux OS distribution version.

 # cd /etc/yum.repos.d/

## On RHEL/CentOS/SL 6 - 32-Bit ##
# wget

## On RHEL/CentOS/SL 5 - 32-Bit ##
# wget

## On RHEL/CentOS/SL 4 - 32-Bit ##
# wget

For RHEL/CentOS/SL 6,5,4 – 64-Bit

 # cd /etc/yum.repos.d/

## On RHEL/CentOS/SL 6 - 64-Bit ##
# wget

## On RHEL/CentOS/SL 5 - 64-Bit ##
# wget

## On RHEL/CentOS/SL 4 - 64-Bit ##
# wget

Once you successfully added repository, do “yum” to install latest Mondo tool.

 # yum install mondo

Installing MondoRescue on Debian / Ubuntu / Linux Mint

Debian user’s can do “wget” to grab the MondoRescue repository for Debain 6 and 5 distributions. Run the following command to add “mondorescue.sources.list” to “/etc/apt/sources.list” file to install Mondo packages.

On Debian

 ## On Debian 6 ##
# wget
# sh -c "cat mondorescue.sources.list >> /etc/apt/sources.list" 
# apt-get update 
# apt-get install mondo
 ## On Debian 5 ##
# wget
# sh -c "cat mondorescue.sources.list >> /etc/apt/sources.list" 
# apt-get update 
# apt-get install mondo

On Ubuntu/Linux Mint

To install Mondo Rescue in Ubuntu 12.10, 12.04, 11.10, 11.04, 10.10 and 10.04 or Linux Mint 13, open the terminal and add the MondoRescue repository in “/etc/apt/sources.list” file. Run these following commands to install Mondo Resuce packages.

 # wget`lsb_release -r|awk '{print $2}'`/mondorescue.sources.list
# sh -c "cat mondorescue.sources.list >> /etc/apt/sources.list" 
# apt-get update 
# apt-get install mondo

Creating Cloning or Backup ISO Image of System/Server

After installing Mondo, Run “mondoarchive” command as “root” user. Then follow screenshots that shows how to create an ISO based backup media of your full system.

 # mondoarchive

Welcome to Mondo Rescue

Mondo Rescue Welcome Screen

Mondo Rescue Welcome Screen

Please enter the full path name to the directory for your ISO Images. For example: /mnt/backup/

Mondo Rescue Storage Directory

Mondo Rescue Storage Directory

Select Type of compression. For example: bzip, gzip or lzo.

Select Type of Compression

Select Type of Compression

Select the maximum compression option.

Mondo Rescue Compression Speed

Select Compression Speed

Please enter how large you want each ISO image in MB (Megabytes). This should be less than or equal to the size of the CD-R(W)’s (i.e. 700) and for DVD’s (i.e. 4480).

Mondo Rescue ISO Size

Define Mondo Rescue ISO Size

Please give a name of your ISO image filename. For example: tecmint1 to obtain tecmint-[1-9]*.iso files.

Mondo Rescue Prefix

Enter Name of Mondo Rescue

Please add the filesystems to backup (separated by “|“). The default filesystem is “/” means full backup.

Mondo Rescue Backup Paths

Enter Backup Paths

Please exclude the filesystem that you don’t want to backup (separated by “|“). For example: “/tmp” and “/proc” are always excluded or if you want full backup of your system, just hit enter.

Mondo Rescue Exclude Paths

Enter Exclude File System

Please enter your temporary directory path or select default one.

Mondo Rescue Temporary  Directory

Enter Temporary Directory Name

Please enter your scratch directory path or select default one.

Mondo Rescue Scratch  Directory Name

Enter Scratch Directory Name

If you would like to backup extended attributes. Just hit “enter“.

Mondo Rescue Extended Backup

Enter Extended Backup Attributes

If you want to Verify your backup, after mondo has created them. Click “Yes“.

Mondo Rescue Verify Backups

Verify Backups

If you’re using stable standalone Linux Kernel, click “Yes” or if you using other Kernel say “Gentoo” or “Debain” hit “No“.

Mondo Rescue Kernel

Select Stable Linux Kernel

Click “Yes” to proceed further.

Mondo Rescue Backup Process

Proceed Cloning Process

Creating a catalog of “/” filesystem.

Mondo Rescue Making Catalog

Creating Catalog for File System

Dividing filelist into sets.

Mondo Rescue Dividing File List

Dividing File List

Calling MINDI to create boot+data disk.

Mondo Rescue Boot Data Disk

Creating Boot Data Disk

Backing up filesytem. It may take a couple of hours, please be patient.

Mondo Rescue Backup Filesystem

Backing up File System

Backing up big files.

Mondo Rescue Big Files Backup

Big Files Backup

Running “mkisofs” to make ISO Image.

Mondo Rescue Creating ISO

Making ISO Image

Verifying ISO Image tarballs.

Mondo Rescue Verify ISO

Verify ISO

Verifying ISO Image Big files.

Mondo Rescue Verify Big Files

Verify Big Files

Finally, Mondo Archive has completed. Please hit “Enter” to back to the shell prompt.

Mondo Rescue Backup Completed

Backup Completed

If you’ve selected default backup path, you will see an ISO image under “/var/cache/mondo/“, that you can burnt into a CD/DVD for later restore.

To restore all files automatically, boot the system with Mondo ISO Image and at boot prompt type “nuke” to restore files. Here is the detailed video that demonstrates how to restore files automatically from CD/DVDmedia.